This article needs additional citations for verification. Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic. Ren is exemplified by a hopfe religions of the world pdf adult’s protective feelings for children.
It is considered the outward expression of Confucian ideals. Yan Hui, one of the Four Sages, once asked his master to describe the rules of ren. Confucius replied, “One should see nothing improper, hear nothing improper, say nothing improper, do nothing improper. One often hears that ren means “how two people should treat one another”. The principle of ren is related to the concepts of li and yi.
Li is often translated as “ritual” while yi is often translated as “righteousness”. Li is the outward expression of Confucian ideals, while ren is both the inward and outward expressions of those same ideals. According to Hopfe and Woodward: “Basically, li seems to mean ‘the course of life as it is intended to go’. Li also has religious and social connotations.
Ren relies heavily on the relationships between two people, but at the same time encompasses much more than that. It represents an inner development towards an altruistic goal, while simultaneously realizing that one is never alone, and that everyone has these relationships to fall back on, being a member of a family, the state, and the world. Confucius believed that the key to long-lasting integrity was to constantly think, since the world is continually changing at a rapid pace. There have been a variety of definitions for the term ren. Ren has been translated as “benevolence”, “perfect virtue”, “goodness” or even “human-heartedness”.
When asked, Confucius defined it by the ordinary Chinese word for love, ai, saying that it meant to “love others”. Ren also has a political dimension. Confucianism says that if the ruler lacks ren, it will be difficult for his subjects to behave humanely. An inhumane ruler runs the risk of losing the Mandate of Heaven or, in other words, the right to rule. The Development of Altruism in Confucianism” Apr. Hopfe M, Lewis and Woodward R.
Pearson Education Inc: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. In the Interstices of Representation: Ludic Writing and the Locus of Polysemy in the Chinese Sign”. Look up 仁 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. This page was last edited on 25 March 2018, at 04:25. Not to be confused with Mithridatism. Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE. Worshippers of Mithras had a complex system of seven grades of initiation and communal ritual meals.
Initiates called themselves syndexioi, those “united by the handshake”. Numerous archaeological finds, including meeting places, monuments and artifacts, have contributed to modern knowledge about Mithraism throughout the Roman Empire. The Romans regarded the mysteries as having Persian or Zoroastrian sources. Since the early 1970s the dominant scholarship has noted dissimilarities between Persian Mithra-worship and the Roman Mithraic mysteries.
The term “Mithraism” is a modern convention. Writers of the Roman era referred to it by phrases such as “Mithraic mysteries”, “mysteries of Mithras” or “mysteries of the Persians”. Modern sources sometimes refer to the Greco-Roman religion as “Roman Mithraism” or “Western Mithraism” to distinguish it from Persian worship of Mithra. Bas-relief of the tauroctony of the Mithraic mysteries, Metz, France. The exact form of a Latin or classical Greek word varies due to the grammatical process of declension. There is archaeological evidence that in Latin worshippers wrote the nominative form of the god’s name as “Mithras”.
Mithraic mysteries by Euboulus and Pallas, the wording of which suggests that these authors treated the name “Mithra” as an indeclinable foreign word. Hittites and the kingdom of Mitanni, from about 1400 BCE. Modern historians have different conceptions about whether these names refer to the same god or not. Mithras as a single deity worshipped in several different religions. BCE, and to whom an old name was applied. Mary Boyce, a researcher of ancient Iranian religions, writes that even though Roman Empire Mithraism seems to have had less Iranian content than historians used to think, nonetheless “as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance”.